Thursday, September 3, 2020

Student communication in online classes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Understudy correspondence in online classes - Essay Example The effect of students’ collaboration and blending upon their penchant to flourish just as the disappointment of ongoing students towards the missing understudies was likewise considered. Elements like diminished network and expensiveness of the web access were found to make understudies utilize the online assistance which isn't feasible for the absent or sporadic clients to accomplish. Confidence among the benefactors results from the quality and not the quantity of their gifts. At long last, the writers prescribe approaches to get away from the read-just sharing. Normal communiquã © and online statuses, worry upon greatness, very much developed statuses, thoughts about scores, counsel, singular reviewing of gathering assignments, moving of individuals among bunches have been distinguished as the realities that advance online association. Simply perusing diminishes an individual’s capacity to pick up information and he/she can not assume a job in the alteration of the learners’ on the web

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Cell Phone Speech

Great evening my companions. Before I start it, I need every one of you to recollect when we were on grade school. Have youbrought PDA to class? On the off chance that you have, what sort of wireless that you brought? Is it a dark andwhite phone? Or then again perhaps you've brought brilliant mobile phone? For me, in grade school, Ihaven't brought mobile phone. In any case, I'm certain that now every one of you have brought PDA to anywhereyou go do as well, I. This evening, I'd prefer to talk about the impact of mobile phone for us as universitystudents.To start it, I'll inform you concerning the basic capacity of PDA, after that I'll tell about theadvantages and disservices, and afterward its terrible and great impact for college understudy. At last, I'llgive my own viewpoint toward the finish of my discourse. To start with, I'll talk about the capacity of mobile phones. I'm certain that every one of you have realized that the functionof mobile phone is for correspondence. As we rea lize that these days a large portion of individuals in this world,especially adolescents, can't survive without cell phones.It is appeared by information fromPew Research Center'sInternet and American Life Project (Lenhart, Ling, Campbell, and Purcell, 2010)that 75% of 12? 17-year-olds own mobile phones. Mobile phone is distinctive with phone. In the event that a phone simply utilized for calling, acell telephone can be utilized for calling and messaging. In this time, wireless' messaging has become a basiccommunication between individuals, particularly for youngsters. Increasingly finished, for teenagers who despite everything given cash bytheir guardians will pick messaging than calling, in light of the fact that the truth of the matter is messaging is less expensive than calling.Thisday, there are numerous kinds of mobile phones, and the majority of that new brand PDAs are completedwith web association. In this way, we can messaging and calling, however we can messaging, surfing, orsharing something through web in mobile phone. Next, each contraption in this world precisely has preferences and impediments. Presently, I'll let you know aboutthe focal points and disservices of mobile phones. Since we are Medical Faculty understudies, so I'lltell the benefits of mobile phones that identified with wellbeing. Do you realize that phone can help us totake care our solid? Ya, PDA can do it.We can speak with a nourishment counselor orsearching about sound way of life with mobile phone. I have an encounter about it. Recently, I was sick,and with wireless I can call my sister, so she can got me a few drugs. What's more, ordinary, mymom continually recollecting that me to drink my medication, so I can be wellbeing again like at this point. Adjacent to theadvantages, phones likewise has weaknesses. Identified with wellbeing, phones can make eye strainbecause of absence of rest. PDA additionally can upset psychological wellness, for instance somebody can bebullying throu gh mobile phone messaging and that can cause mental to be down.The last thing I wanna advise to every one of you is the impact of wireless for us as college understudy. I'm surethat everybody in here have your own mobile phone, isn't that so? I'm additionally certain that your wireless give someeffects that change your conduct. One of that impact is untrustworthiness. Focus on Media and ChildHealth in 2007states that The Pew Internet and American Life Project found that 39% of cell usersages 18-29 state they are not generally honest about where they are the point at which they are on the phone.Iagree with that announcement in light of the fact that occasionally I do that as well, particularly in the event that I am on the telephone withsomeone who I abhor. I'll deceive her/him since I detest them. Better believe it something to that effect. In any case, rememberone significant thing : Don't ever deceive your parent! Perhaps next time every one of you will discover and feel theother impact from PDA by your self. Presently, I wanna end my discourse here. One sentence from me,a thing will be something to be thankful for if the individual who wear that thing is acceptable. In this way, let be a decent individual tomake all the things better.

Friday, August 21, 2020

How to Structure an Essay

The most effective method to Structure an Essay In the event that youve been entrusted withâ writing an essayâ for a class task, the venture may appear to be overwhelming. In any case, your task doesnt must be a hair-pulling, fatigued dusk 'til dawn affair. Consider composing a paper as though you wereâ making a burger. Envision the pieces of a burger: Theres a bun (bread) on top and a bun on the base. In the center, youll discover the meat.â Your presentation resembles the top bun declaring the subject, your supporting sections are the hamburger in the center, and your decision is the base bun, supporting everything. The toppings would be the specificâ examplesâ andâ illustrationsâ that can help toâ clarifyâ key focuses and keep your composing intriguing. (Who, all things considered, would eat a burger made uniquely out of bread and hamburger?) Each part should be available: A wet or missing bun would make your fingers slip promptly into the meat without having the option to hold and appreciate the burger. Be that as it may, if your burger had no meat in the center, youd be left with two dry bits of bread. The Introduction Yourâ introductory paragraphsâ introduce the peruser to your subject. For instance, you may decide to compose a paper titled, Technology Is Changing Our Lives. Start your presentation with aâ hookâ that catches the perusers consideration: Technology is assuming control over our lives and changing the world. After you present your point and attract the peruser, the most significant piece of your basic paragraph(s) would be youâ the fundamental thought, orâ thesis. The Little Seagull Handbook considers this an explanation that presents your central matter, recognizing your theme. Your theory articulation could peruse: Information innovation has changed the manner in which we work. In any case, your theme can be increasingly fluctuated and may cover apparently everyday subjects, for example, this initial section from Mary Zeiglers How to Catch River Crabs. Zeigler gets the perusers attentionâ from the principal sentence: As a long lasting crabber (that is, one who gets crabs, not a ceaseless whiner), I can reveal to you that any individual who has tolerance and an extraordinary love for the stream is able to join the positions of crabbers.​ The last sentences of your presentation, at that point, would be a smaller than expected blueprint of what your article will cover. Dont utilize a blueprint structure, however clarify quickly all the key focuses you plan to talk about in account structure. Supporting Paragraphs Expanding the cheeseburger exposition subject, theâ supporting paragraphsâ would be meat. These would incorporate very much investigated and sensible focuses that help your postulation. Theâ topic sentenceâ of each section may fill in as the reference purposes of your smaller than expected framework. The topicâ sentence, which is oftenâ at the start of aâ paragraph, states or recommends the primary thought (orâ topic) of a passage. Bellevue College in Washington state tells the best way to writeâ four distinctive supporting passages on four unique subjects: a depiction of a wonderful day; reserve funds and advance and bank disappointments; the essayists father; and, the scholars joke-playing cousin. Bellevue clarifies that your supporting sections ought to give rich, distinctive symbolism, or sensible and explicit supporting subtleties, contingent upon your subject. An ideal supporting passage for the innovation subject, examined beforehand, could draw on recent developments. In its Jan. 20-21, 2018, end of the week release, The Wall Street Journal ran an article titled, Digital Revolution Upends Ad Industry: A Divide Between Old Guard and New Tech Hires. The article portrayed in burning point of interest, how one of the universes greatest promotion offices lost a significant Mcdonalds publicizing record to a relative upstartâ because the inexpensive food chain felt the more seasoned organization was not skilled enough at utilizing information to rapidly create online advertisements and target minute cuts of its client base. The more youthful, cooler, office, paradoxically, had worked with Facebook Inc. what's more, Alphabet Incs Google to collect a group of information specialists. You could utilize this report to delineate how innovation and a requirement for laborers who get it and can utilize it-is assuming control over the world and is changing whole enterprises. The Conclusion Similarly as a burger needs a solid base bun to contain all the fixings inside, your paper needs a solid end to help and brace your focuses. You can likewise consider it theâ closing argumentâ a examiner may make in a criminal legal dispute. The end contentions segment of a preliminary happens when the arraignment endeavors to reinforce the proof she introduced to the jury. Even however the investigator likely gave strong and convincing contentions and proof during the preliminary, it isnt until the end contentions that she integrates everything. Similarly, youll rehash your central matters in the end backward request of how you recorded them in your presentation. A few sources call this a topsy turvy triangle: The introduction was a triangle that was straight up, where you began with a short, extremely sharp point-your snare which at that point fanned out somewhat to your theme sentence and widened further with your scaled down framework. The end, paradoxically, is a topsy turvy triangle that begins by comprehensively assessing the proof the focuses you made in your supporting sections and afterward limits to your theme sentence and a repetition of your snare. Along these lines, youve consistently clarified your focuses, rehashed your principle thought, and left perusers with a humdinger that ideally persuades them regarding your perspective. Source Bullock, Richard. The Little Seagull Handbook with Exercises. Michal Brody, Francine Weinberg, Third release, W. W. Norton Company, December 22, 2016.

Saturday, June 13, 2020

The Best Summer Jobs That Aren’t Internships

The Best Summer Jobs That Aren’t Internships by: Andrea Carter on March 19, 2018 | 0 Comments Comments 1,631 Views March 19, 2018For many campuses, Spring Break is over and classes are back in session. Students now have their sights set on surviving the remainder of the semester as their attention shifts toward the summer months. If you’re an undergraduate business school student, this most likely means the coveted summer internship.But for some, what should be a joyful time exploring their passions and identifying different opportunities that align with them, is anything but. Thanks to the highly accelerated recruiting schedules imposed on business schools by the finance industry, not only are many of the sought-after summer internships just about gone, but business schools at the University of Pennsylvania, Georgetown University, Villanova University, and others all report that they’re already engaged in recruiting talks for summer 2019.In a recent article in the University of Pennsylvania’s student newspaper, one Wharton student expressed her frustrations having not yet obtained an internship for the current summer, but already having to start her search to secure a spot a year from now.â€Å"I think people are mostly just annoyed and frustrated that they have to do this so early,† Linda Ashmead, a Wharton sophomore, told the paper. â€Å"The one nice thing about it is that the potential of having the opportunity to have an internship before school starts. For me, I’m willing to be more stressed now if it means that I don’t have to be stressed in the fall.†   SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS: ‘NO INTERNSHIP? DON’T PANIC’To be clear, most schools agree that the main industry wreaking havoc on the traditional internship hiring cycle is financial services, let by investment banks. But across all industries, it’s the bigger companies and firms with large human resources and recruiting infrastructures that have had their summer interns locked in since fall of last year. On the other hand, however, the amped up recruiting schedules are not the only reasons students can find themselves midway through spring semester without any confirmed summer work plans. Brenda Stover, director of the Villanova School of Business Center for Professional Development tells PoetsQuants the reasons vary from one student to the next. It can be as simple as getting a late start because they were understandably focused on their academics to not having a high enough grade point average. Or, it can be more complex. â€Å"Sometimes it’s that the student is going down a rabbit hole that they’re not well aligned with,† Stover says. Using financial services and investment banking as an example, she explains, â€Å"Sixty percent of each of our graduating classes are finance students. There’s this very, very strong interest and this culture that says, ‘If youà ¢â‚¬â„¢re a finance major, you have to be in financial services or you have to be in investment banking.’ The beauty of it is found in those tough love conversations about getting interviews, but not making it to further rounds. When I probe around those issues, for instance for IB or for finance, we sometimes find the students weren’t able to answer technical questions or to give their opinions on things impacting the market. It’s not necessarily a bad reflection on the student, but it could be an indication that the student isn’t motivated about the market or maybe their true passions and interests are not aligned with investment banking.†Whatever the case may be, for students who find themselves without any definitive summer work plans, career services administrators say the wrong thing to do is to panic. PoetsQuants sought out a roundup of tips and traditional internship alternatives from careers services professionals at five top business schoo ls: Villanova School of Business, University of Notre Dame Mendoza College of Business, University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler Business School, Georgetown University McDonough School of Business, and the University of Minnesota Carlson School of Management. All is not lost, they each say, as there are plenty of opportunities to go around and there are a multitude of ways to add value to your resume other than a summer internship.THE BEST SUMMER JOBS THAT AREN’T BUSINESS INTERNSHIPSMcDonough School of Business, Georgetown UniversityBusiness schools are filled with professors who are renowned experts thanks to the endless streams of academic research they conduct and contribute to their various business fields. This spells opportunity for students seeking something of value to add to their resumes this summer. At Georgetown’s McDonough School of Business, a summer stipend is available for students who choose to stay on campus during the summer months and immerse them selves in faculty-led academic research. The McDonough Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship — SURF, as it’s called — awards participating students either a $2,500 grant for a five-week research project or $5,000 grant for a 10-week research project to be completed during the summer.Rebecca Cassidy, a senior assistant dean at McDonough and director of the school’s Office of Professional and Leadership Development, tells PoetsQuants, â€Å"Students pick any subject and professor they want to work with to develop a summer research project and sometimes they work part-time on the side as well. We usually get about 15-20 students per summer and they’re often on the younger end. Usually, it’s students at the end of their sophomore year. They’re not quite ready for a traditional internship, but they also don’t want to go home for the summer either.†Research opportunities also exist at the University of Notre Dame.â€Å"Eve ry single faculty member has research they’re working on, says, Bridget Kibbe, a career engagement manager and career counselor at the University of Notre Dame Career Center. For a student, it could be directly applicable to what they’re learning as an undergrad, but it can also show employers they’re developing research skills and that they’re able to communicate both written and orally. These are all valued skill sets no matter what you pursue.â€Å"This is a huge area of opportunity because so much research goes into everything now, Kibbe continues. With things like data analytics, being able to understand and talk through data is prevalent in every industry.† Page 1 of 3123 »

Sunday, May 17, 2020

How Technology Has Tremendous Positive Spillover Effects...

With all different forms of green technology, the one that can end up affecting the U.S. the greatest is renewable energy. Long term, renewable energy will cost less, making energy consumption cheaper, and in turn making production increasingly cost effective. With green energy being a cutting-edge technological field, it will take a great deal of innovation and creativity to create superior green products. The United States would benefit greatly from discovering more innovative ways to produce these products and gain that lead in commercialization away from Europe. Increases in technology have immense positive spillover effects. â€Å"A technological gain in one sector of production gives people in other sectors of production, new ideas on how†¦show more content†¦Green growth perceived as a win-win situation. The independence from fossil fuels and the â€Å"scalability,† renewable energy can help with both economic and social development, especially in poor, rural, or remote areas that are lacking in energy access (Ottmar Edenhofer, 514). With green renewable technology, there are still a lot of obstacles to overcome, so it is understandable why the U.S. has remained behind. First, there’s a lack of understanding of the long-term benefits and how it would affect society as a whole. This lack of understanding result in a lot of misinformation from biased or political standpoints. The U.S. relies heavily on fossil fuels so moving people away from that is thought as a huge drop in employment and potential large scale issues in the economy. With any original technology, there is inexperience; With green technology being in the infant stage there will be a lot of trial and error. One can also see large initial costs and high marginal costs for maintenance (Europe’s Green Billions, 265). Another barrier is encouraging investment in clean energy. Generally, it is agreed that implementing a carbon tax would encourage investors to work towards cleaner fuels, nevertheless, the U.S. remains widely against additional taxes. Finally, the last obstacle is technological. With renewable energy and green technology being new, the technology is simply not as efficient as it is required

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Legacy Of The Civil War - 1508 Words

From 1861 to 1865 more than 620,000 Union and Confederate soldiers were massacred. In only four years America annihilated the number of American soldiers killed in all other wars combined. America experienced her first full scale house division. The people were in such confusion, Reconstruction Acts had to be used to bring the country back together. Civil War introduced a split country, breaks of states from the union, the South denying rights to emancipated slaves, improving the lifestyle for African Americans, death, and reconstruction of America. Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States, endured a difficult time period in American history, the Civil War. America was split. The South was a huge proponent of slavery while its†¦show more content†¦War efforts shift gears from bringing the union back to abolishing slavery after Lincoln witnessed terrible treatment given to African Americans. The emancipation proclamation announced â€Å"†¦all slaves in rebellious states henceforward shall be free (Wills).† Lincoln did not want to upset the South from ever returning to the Union, but his conscious told him something had to be done about slavery before preserving the union could be achieved (Wills). On December 20th, 1860, South Carolina dissolved from the union. Unknown to the nation, the deadliest war in America had begun. Lincoln seized federal property and military installations when South Carolina seceded, South Carolina refused. Shore batteries of the seceded state open fired on the Union garrison holding Fort Sumter on April 12th, 1861 (Wills). Lincoln henceforth knew the issue could only be resolved with blood. The union would not be repaired without a fight. At the end of war the secession of states created chaos in the capital as officials tried to figure out what punishment Southern states ought to receive (Reconstruction). The North was at a loss for how to punish the South. In 1863, Lincoln proposed a plan (now called the 10 percent plan) allowing ex-confederate states to rejoin the union once 10 percent of its votes swore an oath of allegiance to the United States. Lincoln looked for a peaceful resolution rather than harsh punishment. Even after

Discuss X.25 and Frame Relay Essay Example For Students

Discuss X.25 and Frame Relay Essay ARPA, Internet and Internet2 CIS532 Strayer University 12/1/2013 Contents Abstract†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3 What is the Internet†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦4 Computer Networking and Evolution of the Internet†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 Packet Switching Technology†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 5 X. 25 Technology†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 6 Frame Relay Protocol†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 ATM Protocol†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 7 First Computer Network†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 Communication Protocols†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 0 TCP/IP†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦11 LAN†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 12 Internet2†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 14 References †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 16 ABSTRACT Most of the people that use Internet today are not aware that Internet was not developed by a single person or a single company; in fact even less people know that Internet evolved from many technologies created by ARPA (Advanced Project Research Agency). Internet is a computer network made of many computer networks. Computer networking is a broad and complex field that does not have one single point of origin. It is the results of continuous evolution in computer technology. One of the first computer networks was ARPANET. US Government and its scientist like J. R. C. Licklider, Lawrence Roberts, Bob Kahn and Vint Ceft had vision to develop US into world’s technology leader. Their ideas with help of many organizations and individuals became reality and thank to them we are able to use today technology know as Internet. In last decade and half many universities, private companies and the U. S. government have been working together on echnology known as Internet2 or second generation Internet that provides faster and higher capacity network that is primarily used for research. What is the Internet? If you are information technology professional, you surely have been asked by non-technical person about the Internet. What is the Internet? How does it work? How do you access it? If you just say that the Internet is a worldwide collection of computer networks that exchange data using a com mon software standard will mean nothing to a non-technical person. To answer these questions and similar once, you must first explain that the Internet was not invented by a single person or a single company, and the evolution of the Internet was not a result of the some overnight project, in fact it took at least three decades for all technologies to evolve into Internet. In fact the internet was result of the U. S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA or ARPA). Computer Networking and Evolution of the Internet Today’s Internet is result of USA determination to be a world leader in technology which was prompted after USSR lunched first artificial earth satellite in 1957. First step toward today’s Internet was done by Department of Defense which resulted in creation of ARPA (Advanced Project Research Agency) and appointment of J. C. R Licklider, as first head of this organization. J. C. R Licklider, was the first one to write about idea to have computers interconnected that will allow users to access data and programs from any site. The first computers that were built in the 1950 were known as mainframes and they were used only by Government or some University. These mainframes computers were serving dumb terminals and the only way to connect these dumb terminals with mainframe was through serial connection running on RS-232 interface, but there were also terminals that were not near mainframes computer and the only way to connect them was through Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). In October of 1965, Lawarence Roberts successfully connected TX-2 computer at MIT in Massachusetts to a Q-32 computer in California via direct phone line. From this test and similar tests ARPA learned that existing circuit-switch technology has limitation (i. . inefficiency of phone lines, existing network utility limited variety of interconnected devices). From this point on Lawarence Roberts worked with Leonard Kleinrock who in 1961 wrote paper on packet-switching theory. Packet Switching Technology Packet switching technology was born as alternative to the circuit switch technology that was not designed to handle voice traffic over long distance. Packet switching technology even after this many years of its initial development is still fundamentally the same and is the most effective technology for long-distance data communications. Data or messages that are put on packet switched network have no defined starting or ending points (unless data is less than 1000 octets) therefore message have to be broken into smaller blocks called packets. Switched network can be configured to deliver these packets in two ways: datagram or virtual circuit. †¢Datagram – each packet is treated independently and exit or destination nodes are responsible for putting packets back to their original order. †¢Virtual circuit – there will be pre-establish route and all packets are sent via this route. With packet switching, data are transmitted in short blocks, called packets. Each packet contains a portion of the user’s data plus some control information†. (STALLINGS, 2002) First packet switch standard was X. 25, but technology as Frame Relay and ATM are more dominant today. X. 25 Technology â€Å"First, X. 25 provided end-to-end flow control process that offered a high level of security and quality, even through analogue lines of lower grade. Second, X. 25 was designed for both point-to-point and switched communications. Third, rapid endorsement of X. 5 by PTTs around world created a true global service†. (DUNOGUE, 1995) Figure DTEs, DCEs and PSEs Make Up an X. 25 Network Note: Figure obtained from â€Å"Cisco Internetworking Technology Handbook†. Retrieved from http://www. cisco. com/en/US/docs/internetworking/technology/handbook/X25. html Frame Relay Protocol â€Å"Frame relay by definition is a protocol oriented, packet-switched technology offered by telephone companies and by function it is programmed software located at a telephone company, designed to provide more efficient digital connections form one point to another. It is emerging technology that will provide a faster, more cost-effective method for computer networking†. (CUTRIGHT GIRRARD, 1996) Figure A simple Frame Relay Network Connects Various Devices to Different Services over a WAN Note: Figure obtained from â€Å"Data Connect Enterprise†. Retrieved from http://www. data-connect. com/Frame_X25. htm ATM Protocol â€Å"Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), was developed as part of the work on broadband ISDN but is used in non-ISDN environments, where very high data rates are required†. (STALLINGS, 2002) Both ATM forum and ITU-T standardization body contributed to ATM development, ITU-T is responsible for its standardization and ATM forum for its applications. The base of ATM architecture is cell which is chunk of data that has fixed length. To better describe ATM architecture and functionality it is necessary to know that its functionality is mapped to the physical and data link layers of the OSI reference model. ATM reference model is composed of three layers: †¢Physical layer – manages medium-dependent transmission. †¢ATM layer – provides cell switching and routing services. ATM adaption layer – has two functions: a)Segmentation and reassembly of large data sets into ATM cells. b)Provide specific services for transport of different types of data. In addition to three layers ATM reference model consists of three planes: †¢Control plane – responsible for generating and managing signaling requests. †¢User plane – responsible for managing data transfers. †¢Management plane – made of two components: a)Layer management – manages specific functions (detection of failures and detection of protocol problems). )Plane management – manages and coordinates functions related to the complete system. Figure The ATM reference model relates to the lowest two layers of the OSI reference model. Note: Figure obtained from â€Å"What is a ATM? †. Retrieved from http://www. pulsewan. com/data101/atm_basics. htm ATM is connection oriented technology which means that before communication can take place on ATM network, a virtual circuit must be setup. If there are multiple virtual channel connections (VCC) with the same endpoint they can be grouped together and configured into virtual path connections (VCP). Alcohol Abuse EssayFurther technology development resulted in NCP replacement with TCP/IP protocol in 1983, as TCP/IP became favorite protocol it also resulted in ARPANET retirement and transfer to NSFNET (National Science Foundation) in 1990. NSFNET was replaced by CSNET (Computer Science Network) and in 1995 US Government transfer management of Internet to independent organizations: †¢ISOC – Internet Society †¢IAB – Internet Architecture Board †¢IETF – Internet Engineering Task Force †¢IRTF – Internet Research Task Force †¢ICANN – Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers †¢IANA – Internet Assigned Numbers Authority NSI – Network Solutions †¢Accredited Domain Name Registrars We can conclude that for today’s Internet is the most responsible ARPA and its scientist, they recognized that computers needed to be interconnected, but existing public switched telephone network was not adeq uate for it. ARPA’s scientist developed new switching technology and new protocols (X. 25, Frame Relay and ATM) that were able to handle more bandwidth at higher speed and better quality. After these innovations scientist were able to form computer networks known as LAN, which uses Ethernet technology and TCP/IP protocols. Connecting many LANs into one large network we have today’s Internet. Internet2 At the end of last decade issues such as security, spam, slow downloads were some of the problems with conventional Internet, which prompted new initiatives to develop the Internet of the future, better known as Internet2. In 1996 a group of 36 scientists got together in Chicago and discuss ideas how to develop and implement Internet2. At first Internet2 was administered by the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID), but today we have large number of universities, private companies, organizations and U. S. overnment laboratories working continuously on Internet2 technology to provide leading edge network capabilities and promote worldwide partnerships to support and enhance educational and research missions. â€Å"Internet2 has four primary areas of interest and development, according to it Web site: †¢High performance networks – networks that have high bandwi dth. †¢Advanced network applications – applications which improve collaboration among people and to provide interactive access to information and resources. †¢New network capabilities – †¢Middleware – examples are telecommunications software, messaging and queuing software†. MATIS, 2006) Internet2 is not new network that will eventually replace conventional Internet, although it is a separate physical network from conventional Internet. Interent2 is made up of several logically different but related networks: †¢Advanced IP network – this network support advanced networking protocols, multicast, IPv6. †¢Virtual circuit network – is dedicated bandwidth with optical paths between endpoints. †¢Core optical network. Conventional InternetIntenet2 †¢Is open and available to anyone who has a computer. †¢Is made up of old telephone lines. †¢Average cable mode moves data around 4 Megabits per second. Is only available to selected organization. †¢Is made up of large capacity fiber optic cables. †¢Moves data at 10 Gigabits per second. Before Internet2 is mesh with conventional Internet following needs to happen: †¢Must be backward compatible, since existing infrastructure will continue to be the access path to all non participants in Internet2. †¢Must provide ability that any node can communicate with any other node in a compatible transport format. †¢(IPv6) Internet Protocol version 6 must be backward compatible with IPv4. †¢Internet2 must enable application to support QoS. Interent2 needs to be affordable to large mass. References A Short History of the Ethernet, (n. d). Retrieved from http://bugclub. org/beginners/history/EthernetHistory. html Cisco Internetworking Technology Handbook, (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. cisco. com/en/US/docs/internetworking/technology/handbook/X25. html Cutright, P. , Girrard, K. (1996). Frame Relay. What does it mean ? Online 20 (3), 68. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Digital History, (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. old-computers. com/history/detail. asp? n=23t=5 Dunogue, J. (1995). From X. 5 to ATM: The evolution of data networks. Telecom Asia, 6 (3), 28. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database. Gromov, G. (2009). Roads and Crossroads of Internet History. Retrieved from http://www. netvalley. com/cgi-bin/intval/net_history. pl Internet2. (1997). Retrieved from http://eng. internet2. edu/97engineering. html Matlis, J. (2006). Internet2: Retrieved from http://www. computerworld. com. au/article/165527/internet2/ Oppenheimer, P. (2001). Top-Down Network Design, Indianapolis, IN: Cisco Press Rogers, S. (1999). Network+ Certification Study Guide, Berkeley, California: McGraw-Hill Stallings, W. (2002). Network Architecture and Analysis: Custom Edition (2nd ed. ) NJ: Pearson. The Internet, (n. d). Retrieved from http://www. livinginternet. com/i/i. htm Unuth, N. (n. d). Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching: Retrieved October from http://voip. about. com/od/voipbasics/a/switchingtypes. htm †¢ You must write a paper on the history of the Internet. The paper must be written in formal APA style, must be at least 8 pages of content in addition to a title page, abstract, table of contents, and citations page. Make sure you use descriptive headings within the content area. Your paper should include how the Internet was invented and evolved over time. Include ARPANET and all of the events on a timeline up to today, and you must describe the events in a way that a non-technical peson might understand. The networking protocols must be discussed, discuss Internet2 and its relationship to the conventional Internet. You must attach your paper as an MSWord doc file (not docx) to the link provided. Anyone submitting in any other format will receive no credit. Note that strict APA citation format is required. That means that any material that is not your own must be cited within the test area. If that is not done, I will asume that the material was copied and not cited. In that case, a zero will be awarded as a grade. In cases wwhere that has happened in the past, the student has failed the course. This means any line of material used from any other source must be cited. Answer Selected Answer: ElvirKaric_FinalExam_12192010. doc Response Feedback: Good job! However, for perfection, you must learn to make better use of transitions at the end of each section. Look at your first section as an example you summarize it very well; and introduce the idea that In fact the internet was result of the U. S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA or ARPA). In the next section, you follow on that idea; however, your first line in that section talks about . . . Today’s Internet is result of USA determination to be a world leader in technology which was prompted after USSR lunched first artificial earth satellite in 1957. When it sghould have mentioned DARPA or ARPA. Bottom line, the intro section must be tightly linked to how you closed the previous section; and this must be done in the first line of the section. Sunday, December 19, 2010 9:04:45 PM EST